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留学生Essay正文部分写作攻略

来源:原创    作者:Top论文网    发布时间:2019-05-10 14:17    浏览次数: 次    字数:4603字

文章分类:Essay代写    文章关键词:留学生Essay写作

文章导读:Essay是我们每一个中国留学生去到国外学习必定会完成的一类作业,Essay最常见的结构分为introduction、body以及conclusion,而今天Top论文网要给大家带来的是关于Body部分的写作攻略,希望可...
  Essay是我们每一个中国留学生去到国外学习必定会完成的一类作业,Essay最常见的结构分为introduction、body以及conclusion,而今天Top论文网要给大家带来的是关于Body部分的写作攻略,希望可以帮到大家。
 
Essay写作
 
  正文部分(Body)的作用主要是阐述文章的中心思想或主题,一般占文中最大的比重并且也是最重要的部分。正文通常由几段构成,每段称为body paragraph。
 
  Body paragraph可以由TAXES式或“汉堡包”式的结构组成,这两类结构都能够有助于我们围绕着主题来展开论述。
 
  TAXES式
 
  •Topic Sentence(主题句):一句话阐述此段的论点
 
  •Assertion statements(主张句):用几句话阐明论点
 
  •eXample(例子):举例一些相关事实
 
  •Explanation(解释):联系观点和例子,说明上面的例子是如何支持论点的。
 
  •Significance(意义):总结阐释本段论点是怎么论证文章主题的。
 
  “汉堡包”式
 
“汉堡包”式写作机构
“汉堡包”式写作机构
 
  •Topic Sentence(主题句):用一个中心提出观点
 
  •Supporting Evidence(支持论据):用事例来证明
 
  •Conclusion Sentence(总结句):扣住观点分析材料
 
  接下来,我们再说一下Essay写作中Body Paragraph部分写作重点。
 

  Topic Sentence的写作要点

 
  第一,要弄清楚主题句是在表达一个观点,而不是事实。
 
  错误事实Plagiarizing is to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own.
 
  正确观点People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.
 
  第二,主题句要具体点明一个观点,而不是只是说一个话题、
 
  错误话题:Today I'm going to discuss the benefits of gardening.
 
  正确观点:Gardening gives us pleasure and is very effective to our minds.
 
  最后,你的观点不能使泛泛而谈,而是非常确定的,不能模糊。
 
  错误模糊:The United States suffered a lot during the Civil War.
 
  正确确切:Sherman's destruction in the South during the Civil War also caused incredible suffering.
 

  Essay paragraph写作如何引用论据

 
  有一个原则是我们要遵守的,所有列举的论据,都必须要保证与主题有关。
 
  论据包含以下几种类型:
 
  •   Research data(研究数据)
  •      Published case studies(公开的案例研究)
  •   Published opinions(发表的观点)
  •   Facts(事实)
  •   Research from books,journal articles,websites,etc.(书刊、网站等媒体上的调查研究)
 
  论据的引述方法:
 
 
  并且我们还需要记住两个重点:1、论据要自然地穿插于文中;2.切记一定要标明论据的来源。
 
  比如下面例子中的表达:
 
  Further insight into income inequality is provided by Dr.Delaney,an economist at Stanford,who is of the opinion that…
 

  Essay paragraph写作要有重要的过渡

 
  文章的段落与段落之间、句与句之间,都需要良好的过渡。
 
  过渡能够让文章具有连贯性和统一性,没有过渡的文章就是句子随机拼凑在一起,文中的逻辑很难叫人领会。
 
  错误无过渡:Students who write academic essays need to provide effective transitions.Transitions allow writers to connect the main ideas that are present in an essay.Using conjunctive adverbs and other introductory elements allow a writer to connect one sentence to the next.The use of these words will make the writing more fluent and less choppy.Many students fail to use effective transitions,and the essay comes across as disconnected.Writers should always be aware of the need to connect both sentences and paragraphs together.
 
  正确有过渡:Students who write academic essays need to provide effective transitions.It is the use of these transitions that allow writers to connect the main ideas that are present in an essay.For example,by using conjunctive adverbs and other introductory elements,a writer can easily connect one sentence to the next.Moreover,the use of these words will make the writing more fluent and less choppy.Unfortunately,students often fail to use effective transitions,and,as a result,the essay comes across as disconnected.To avoid this,writers should always be aware of the need to connect both sentences and paragraphs together,and they should strive to find creative ways to do so.
 
 
  加了过渡词以后,整篇文章连贯了很多,所以在文章初稿写完以后,还要再通读一遍,在不够连贯的地方加上适当的过渡。
 

  Essay paragraph写作常用的过渡词

 
  1.To Prove(证明)
 
  in fact,indeed,because,for,since,for the same reason,for this reason,obviously,evidently,besides,in addition,in any case
 
  2.To Add(递进)
 
  additionally,in addition,again,besides,moreover,what’s more,equally important(also important),finally,further,furthermore,first(second,third,etc.)next,lastly
 
  3.To Compare(比较)
 
  however,on the other hand,on the contrary,in contrast,whereas,yet,nevertheless,by comparison,compared to,conversely,up against,balanced against,although,meanwhile,after all,while this may be true
 
  4.To Repeat(重复)
 
  as mentioned,as has been noted
 
  5.To Show Exception(转折)
 
  however,but,nevertheless,in spite of,yet,still,despite,of course,once in a while,sometimes,unfortunately
 
  6.To Emphasize(强调)
 
  indeed,certainly,in any case,without a doubt,obviously,definitely,extremely,in fact,absolutely,positively,naturally,surprisingly,emphatically,unquestionably,undeniably,without reservation,always,never
 
  7.To Give an Example(举例)
 
  for example,for instance,to demonstrate,to illustrate,as an illustration,in another case,take the case of,on this occasion,in this situation
 
  8.To Show Sequence(排序)
 
  as a result,subsequently,consequently,concurrently,following this,now,at this point,afterward,simultaneously,first(second,third,etc.)
 
  9.To Summarize or Conclude(总结)
 
  In conclusion,as demonstrated,to conclude,summing up,in brief,as a result,therefore,accordingly,consequently,hence,on the whole
 
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