国外论文代写避免抄袭的六种方式

来源:原创    作者:Top论文网    发布时间:2019-05-10 16:19    浏览次数: 次    字数:15607字

文章分类:留学作业代写    文章关键词:国外论文代写

文章导读:在国外留学论文写作中,如果没有在论文中充分说明文献来源,而从他人处获取任何想法或者语言都会被认为抄袭,不论是代写还是自己都是如此。无论来源是有出版作品的作者、另一...
  在国外留学论文写作中,如果没有在论文中充分说明文献来源,而从他人处获取任何想法或者语言都会被认为抄袭,不论是代写还是自己都是如此。无论来源是有出版作品的作者、另一名学生,或者是没有明确作者的网站,还是任何其他人,采用他人的成果而没有给出来源就是抄袭,而且这在所有的学术情况下都是不被接受的。当然这种情况几乎不会在代写行为中发生,除非是不靠谱的代写机构。我们留学生要知道,抄袭行为不管是故意为之或者偶然发生,你都需要承担责任。
 
  现在我们留学生都可以轻松地在网上查找各种类型的信息,这为我们进行论文写作查找资料提供了很多方便。但是这也意味着我们在使用在线资源时,需要更谨慎地保存获取信息的来源。如果你直接从某个电子文件里直接复制粘贴了内容,或者你从多个网站上提取信息,但没有仔细记录,那么你都会造成论文抄袭。前面的文章《如何避免Assignment被怀疑抄袭?》也给大家说了如何避免抄袭,有兴趣的同学可以看一下。
 
  在这里强调一下,我们需要把每一个网页都认作是一个带有作者的文档,因此使用网站上的信息,我们也必须在论文里面正确引用每个网站。即使和一篇印刷文章相比,网站上的文章我们可能不太容易找到作者的信息,或者根本没有提供作者的信息,你也有责任做好正确的引用。无论文献的来源是什么,或者文献的作者是否明显,你始终都需要提供文献的来源。下文Top论文网将通过较长篇幅来为大家讲述比较常见的六种抄袭方式,希望大家在今后留学论文写作中要坚决避免。
 

  国外论文代写抄袭方式一:逐字逐句地抄袭Verbatim plagiarism

 
  如果你从另一个来源逐字逐句地复制到你自己的论文中,那么你就是犯了Verbatim plagiarism的错误。正确的方法是使用双引号进行直接引用,并给出作者信息。或者是用自己的语言表达原文的意思,同时给出作者信息。现在我们来看几个例子。
 
  原文:
 
  Political transitions brought about by the collapse of authoritarian rule,democratization,or political reforms also make states particularly prone to violence.28 The emergence and rise of exclusionary national ideologies,such as ethnic nationalism and religious fundamentalism,can be destabilizing as well.The emergence of dehumanizing ideologies,which literally deny the humanity of other ethnic groups,is particularly dangerous because it is often the precursor to genocidal slaughter.29
 
  –Brown Michael E.“The Causes of Internal Conflict:An Overview.”Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict.Ed.Michael E.Brown et al.Cambridge:MIT,2001.14.Print.
 
  抄袭版本:
 
  可以看到虽然这段话里面有学生自己写作的句子,但是斜体部分的句子是从原文直接照抄的。即使原文中的部分句子被删掉了,但是剩下的句子还是逐字逐句照抄的。
 
  In the case of Rwanda,both overt ethnic discrimination and a weak state led to genocide.The state had not protected the civil liberties of the Tutsis,thus failing to uphold true democratic principles.In fact,political transitions brought about by the collapse of authoritarian rule,democratization,or political reforms also make states particularly prone to violence.The emergence and rise of exclusionary national ideologies,such as ethnic nationalism and religious fundamentalism,can be destabilizing as well.The emergence of dehumanizing ideologies is often the precursor to genocidal slaughter.
 
  符合学术规范的版本#1(带有引用信息的直接引用)
 
  这个段落里面学生使用了直接引用,并且给出了引用信息(此处使用的是MLA引用格式),这种情况,我们就是给了原作者足够的Credit。另外,因为在句子正文中已经提到了作者的姓氏,所以在括号里面只需要包含页码就可以。
 
  In the case of Rwanda,both overt ethnic discrimination and a weak state led to genocide.The state had not protected the civil liberties of the Tutsis,thus failing to uphold true democratic principles.In fact,Brown notes that“political transitions brought about by the collapse of authoritarian rule,democratization,or political reforms also make states particularly prone to violence.The emergence and rise of exclusionary national ideologies,such as ethnic nationalism and religious fundamentalism,can be destabilizing as well.The emergence of dehumanizing ideologies…is often the precursor to genocidal slaughter”(14).
 
  符合学术规范的版本#2(带有引用信息的Paraphrase)
 
  在这个版本中,学生用自己的语言表达了原作者的观点,但是明确给出了原作者的信息(“Michael Brown suggests…”),同时给出了引用来源的页码(此处使用的是MLA引用格式)。
 
  In the case of Rwanda,both overt ethnic discrimination and a weak state led to genocide.The state had not protected the civil liberties of the Tutsis,thus failing to uphold true democratic principles.In fact,as Michael Brown suggests,violence often results from the end of an authoritarian government and its replacement with a more democratic society.Violence is also more likely when an authoritarian society gives way to ethnic nationalism or religious fundamentalism.When emerging ideologies dehumanize certain ethnic groups,the conditions are also ripe for genocide(14).
国外论文代写
论文抄袭定义

  国外论文代写抄袭方式二:东拼西凑地抄袭Mosaic plagiarism

 
  如果你从一个文献或者几个文献复制了好几处的内容,但是没有给出引用信息,那你这就是犯了mosaic plagiarism的错误。有的时候,这种错误并不是你有意为之。你可能只是在收集文献时,因为没有仔细地记录笔记,所以弄混了你自己个人的想法和原文的信息,因此犯了论文抄袭的错误。所以为了避免论文抄袭,我们不仅需要有一个正确的意识,同时也要养成一个良好的学术习惯。在research和写论文的整个过程中,你都需要明确区分你自己的想法和其他作者的想法。如果你仔细地记录了他人的想法,分清你自己想法和原文的不同之处,并且严格遵循正确的引用方式,你就可以避免mosaic plagiarism。
 
  原文#1:
 
  An episode of Scrubs off a DVD(without commercials)is only 22 minutes long.A 22-minute episode followed by a 5-minute break and a 22-minute discussion will be more engaging and more memorable to the students than a lecture…
 
  One need not agree with all elements of the story for it to have educational value.What is accurate and what is inaccurate are grist for a good discussion,and encourages student participation more than any article that just tells them what to believe.Furthermore,watching people and hearing their voices provide much better tests of clinical skills of observation than merely reading words on a page.One must see a patient’s body language and hear her tone of voice in order to learn how to observe(or how to hone one’s skills).
 
  –Spike,Jeffrey.(2008).Television viewing and ethical reasoning:Why watching Scrubs does a better job than most bioethics classes.The American Journal of Bioethics,8(12),11-13.
 
  原文#2:
 
  Indeed,of the more than 3500 hours of instruction during medical school,an average of less than 60 hours are devoted to all of bioethics,health law and health economics combined.Most of the instruction is during the preclinical courses,leaving very little instructional time when students are experiencing bioethical or legal challenges during their hands-on,clinical training.More than 60 percent of the instructors in bioethics,health law,and health economics have not published since 1990 on the topic they are teaching.
 
  –Persad,G.C.,Elder,L.,Sedig,L.,Flores,L.,&Emanuel,E.(2008)The current state of medical school education in bioethics,health law,and health economics.Journal of Law,Medicine,and Ethics 36,89-94.
 
  抄袭版本
 
  实际上这句话中的信息都是来源于Persad这个作者,但是因为这个学生只是某一句中指出了原作者的信息,所以整段话看起来会让读者觉得是学生自己的想法。
 
  In order to advocate the use of the sitcom Scrubs as part of the medical education system,it is also important to look at the current bioethical curriculum.Medical school curriculum does not focus adequately on the moral issues that doctors face in the clinic.In fact,in more than 3500 hours of training that students undergo in medical school,only about 60 hours are focused on bioethics,health law,and health economics.It is also problematic that students receive this training before they actually go on to their hands-on,clinical training(Persad et al,2008).Most of these hours are taught by instructors without current publications in the field.
 
  下面这部分所有内容都是从第二个文献中改写或者逐字逐句照抄的,但是因为学生没有给出作者Spike的信息,读者会误认为这是学生自己的想法。
 
  By watching episodes of Scrubs,however,medical students would have the chance to watch people and hear their voices,providing a much better test of clinical skills of observation than you can get from reading words on a page.One must see a patient’s body language and hear her tone of voice if one is to become a better observer,and watching the patients on television would provide a good opportunity for medical students to do so.
 
  关于empathy这一点的确是学生自己想法,但是这个想法其实是基于Spike这个文献的基础上的。
 
  Perhaps even more significantly,medical students would be introduced to certain issues,and while the experiences may not be their own,they would be effective in helping them to understand those experiences as they empathize with the characters.
 
  符合学术规范的版本
 
  在这个版本中,每个句子中都提到了原文中的作者,这清楚地表明了这一段话中的所有信息都来源于Persad等人。同时,这段话里面还正确使用了APA引用格式指出了原文。另外,通过使用“Professor Jeffrey Spike(2008)proposes”,介绍了原文作者的信息,这段话很好地在学生自己的想法和引用文献之间设置了一个明确的界限。
 
  In order to advocate the use of the sitcom Scrubs as part of the medical education system,it is also important to look at the current bioethical curriculum.Medical school curriculum does not focus adequately on the moral issues that doctors face in the clinic.In fact,according to Persad et al.(2008),only about one percent of teaching time throughout the four years of medical school is spent on ethics.As the researchers argue,this presents a problem because the students are being taught about ethical issues before they have a chance to experience those issues themselves.They also note that more than sixty percent of instructors teaching bioethics to medical students have no recent publications in the subject.
 
  Professor Jeffrey Spike(2008)proposes an unconventional solution:watching Scrubs.As he notes,simply in viewing the show,“watching people and hearing their voices provide much better tests of clinical skills of observation than merely reading words on a page”(p.12).Perhaps even more significantly,medical students would be introduced to certain ethical dilemmas,and while the experiences may not be their own,they would be effective in helping them to understand those experiences as they empathize with the characters.
 

  国外论文代写抄袭方式三:不充分Paraphrase

 
  当你做paraphrase时,你的任务是用你自己的语言来提炼出原文的想法。而不是简单地改几个词语。相反,你必须用自己的话完全重述原文的想法。如果你的语言太接近原文,那么即使你提供引用信息,这也是论文抄袭的行文。
 
  为了确保你使用自己的语言,最好是阅读原文并且理解原文的基础上,在paraphrase的时候把原文贩放在一边。通过这种方式,你可以迫使自己提炼原作者的想法并且用新的方式表达出来。一旦你完成草稿之后,你需要再一次回顾原文的内容,并且确保你没有使用原文的词汇或句子结构。如果你想要使用原文来表示强调,那么必须使用双引号进行直接引用。
 
  原文:
 
  So in Romeo and Juliet,understandably in view of its early date,we cannot find that tragedy has fully emerged from the moral drama and the romantic comedy that dominated in the public theaters of Shakespeare’s earliest time.Here he attempted an amalgam of romantic comedy and the tragic idea,along with the assertion of a moral lesson which is given the final emphasis—although the force of that lesson is switched from the lovers to their parents.But tragedy is necessarily at odds with the moral:it is concerned with a permanent anguishing situation,not with one that can either be put right or be instrumental in teaching the survivors to do better.
 
  –Leech,Clifford.“The Moral Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet.”Critical Essays on Romeo and Juliet.Ed.Joseph A.Porter.New York:G.K.Hall,1997.20.Print.
 
  抄袭版本
 
  这个版本就是不充分地改写,是论文抄袭的一种形式。因为只是简单地换了几个词语,比如将”amalgam”换成了”mixture”,将”assertion of a moral lesson”换成了”asserts a moral lesson”,将”force”换成了“impact”。但是其他的文字是原封不动的。
 
  In his essay,“The Moral Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet,”Clifford Leech suggests that rather than being a straight tragedy,Romeo and Juliet is a mixture of romantic comedy and the tragic idea,and that it asserts a moral lesson which is given the final emphasis.The impact of the moral lesson is switched from the lovers to the parents(20).
 
  符合学术规范版本#1(充分地改写,并且带有引用信息)
 
  在这个版本中,学生用自己的语言介绍了原作者的想法,同时使用了正确的MLA引用格式。
 
  In his essay,“The Moral Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet,”Clifford Leech suggests that there is more to Romeo and Juliet than simply a gloom-and-doom tragedy of two people destined to die for their illicit love.According to Leech,Romeo and Juliet is part romantic comedy,part tragedy,part morality tale in which the moral lesson is learned at the end.But this moral lesson comes with a twist:Since the lovers are dead,their parents experience the consequences of their actions(20).
 
  符合学术规范版本#2(直接引用,并且带有引用信息)
 
  在这个版本中,我们使用了直接引用并且提供了MLA格式的引用信息。
 
  In his essay,“The Moral Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet,”Clifford Leech suggests that there is more to Romeo and Juliet than simply a gloom-and-doom tragedy of two people destined to die for their illicit love.According to Leech,in Romeo and Juliet,Shakespeare“attempted an amalgam of romantic comedy and the tragic idea,along with the assertion of a moral lesson which is given the final emphasis—although the force of that lesson is switched from the lovers to their parents”(20).
 

  国外论文代写抄袭方式四:Paraphrase时未出引用信息

 
  当你使用自己的语言来描述其他人的想法时,这个想法仍然属于原始材料的作者。因此只是充分地改写原文还是不够的,即使你已经明显改变了措辞,你也需要提供引用来源。与直接引用一样,当你paraphrase的时候,你只是为读者展现了原文的一部分,所以你应该为读者提供足够的信息,以便他们可以查找到原文。其实避免论文抄袭有一个非常简单的诀窍,只要不是你自己提出的想法,你都需要给原文提供credit,不管是通过直接引用还是进行充分地paraphrase。
 
  原文
 
  The form of military compensation also limits the ability of military families to adapt to financial crises,potentially forcing them to turn to creditors.Much of military compensation comes in the form of non-fungible in-kind goods and services,rather than a traditional paycheck.Military health care,future tuition assistance,military housing,military food,access to commissaries,and access to military recreational facilities and entertainment are all important components of the compensation package for military personnel.Military recruiters understandably use these side benefits as a way of explaining and justifying relatively low military pay.Nevertheless,the non-fungible nature of non-cash compensation prevents military personnel from converting a significant portion of their resources to overcome income shocks and unexpected expenses.
 
  –Graves,S.M.,&Peterson,C.L.(2005).Predatory lending and the military:The law and geography of“payday”loans in military towns.Ohio State Law Journal 66,27.
 
  抄袭版本
 
  这个版本直接用到了原文的想法,虽然进行了充分地改写,我们也需要提供原文作者的信息。
 
  Besides the problem of low wages,however,military members are also faced with the reality that much of their compensation is not paid in cash.While civilians can allot their cash earnings to pay for,say,car repairs,a military household cannot convert their illiquid medical,housing,food,or tuition assistance benefits into cash to cover unexpected expenses.As a result,many military personnel find that the amount and the type of compensation they receive are not conducive to smoothing temporary spikes in expenditures.
 
  符合学术规范的版本
 
  这个版本明确给出了原文作者的信息。
 
  According to Graves and Peterson(2005),military members are faced not only with low wages,but with the reality that much of their compensation is not paid in cash.While civilians can allot their cash earnings to pay for,say,car repairs,a military household cannot convert their illiquid medical,housing,food,or tuition assistance benefits into cash to cover unexpected expenses.Graves and Peterson further explain that many military personnel find that the amount and the type of compensation they receive are not conducive to smoothing temporary spikes in expenditures.
国外论文代写
国外论文代写如何避免抄袭

  国外论文代写抄袭方式五:直接引用未出引用信息

 
  当你用双引号标注直接引用时,你向读者说明了你是别的地方获取了这些信息。但是这还是不够的。你还需要指出原文作者的信息,同时帮助你的读者方便查找到原文。如果你的读者想要了解关于该主题的更多信息,他们应该通过你的引用文献很方便地找到原文。所以,直接引用后面必须跟着引用信息。
 
  原文:
 
  More interested in the legal and moral aspects of world order than in the economic agenda supported by Hamiltonians,Wilsonians typically believe that American interests require that other countries accept basic American values and conduct both their foreign and domestic affairs accordingly.This school has much deeper roots farther back in American history than is sometimes recognized.
 
  –Mead,Walter Russell.Special Providence.New York:Routledge,2002.Print.
 
  抄袭版本
 
  虽然这里面给出了双引号,表明这句句子来源于别的文章,但是没有给出原文作者的信息。
 
  Wilsonians take the position“that American interests require that other countries accept basic American values and conduct both their foreign and domestic affairs accordingly.”An analysis of President Obama’s foreign policy goals,as articulated in his inaugural address,reveals strong Wilsonian tendencies.
 
  符合学术规范的版本
 
  这个版本非常规范地使用了MLA格式给出了原文的引用信息。
 
  Wilsonians take the position“that American interests require that other countries accept basic American values and conduct both their foreign and domestic affairs accordingly”(Mead 88).An analysis of President Obama’s foreign policy goals,as articulated in his inaugural address,reveals strong Wilsonian tendencies.
 

  国外论文代写抄袭方式六:抄袭同学的想法

 
  在某些课上,老师会建议学生之间一起合作,互相讨论想法。即使在这样的情况下,你也必须了解写作部分是否是要求你独立完成的,或者是小组可以一起完成的。大多数情况下,写作或者计算的部分都会要求个人独立完成。不过,我们建议你和同学之间多做讨论,从他人那里得到反馈,并且根据反馈来及时修改你的论文。只是我们还是需要分清楚你自己的想法和他人的想法。如果你引用了他人的想法,需要在论文中明确说明。
 
  那么在与同学讨论中得到的想法应该如何做引用呢?课堂讨论中提出的想法通常是大家一起合作的结果,往往不是一个人思考的产物。但是,如果有某一个学生在讨论中明确提出一个想法,而你在论文中引用了这个想法,那么你应该提供这个学生的引用信息。在其他情况下,如果课堂讨论给了你一些想法和灵感,你可以在论文中加一个脚注,让你的读者知道讨论的信息。比如,你正在写关于The Things They Carried这本书的论文,并且在某次课堂讨论中得到了想法,你可以在论文脚注上标注一下“I am indebted to the members of my Expos 20 section for sparking my thoughts about the role of the narrator as Greek Chorus in Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried.”,对你的同学表示感谢。

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